Your bike’s power depends on the battery, controller, and motor. These must be balanced to achieve optimal power output and proper performance. Here we provide a basic explanation of each component and how they are related:
Battery Pack: This is your energy source. It determines how much power is available and how long it is available. There is a limit on how much power is given, depending on the design and BMS. This limit is directly related to the overall capacity. Your pack will provide the demanded or maximum power until its charge is depleted. Once the bike requires more power than the battery can supply, the BMS will shut the system down to avoid damage.
Controller: This will manage how much power can be taken from the battery pack and how much power can be sent to the motor. By design, the intake should be matched to the battery output to avoid activating the battery protection circuit (BMS) due to an excess of demand. If the battery’s supply is diminished, the controller will reduce the output to the motor.
Motor: The driving force on your electric motor is torque, which will be active from 0% to 100% operating speed. Your motor supplies power to the bike the instant it starts spinning. The motor rating is your average motor power, which determines the speed of the motor. The power output will be achieved with input from the controller and energy from the battery pack. The power rating on your motor should be balanced to maintain proper speed under a given load.